Renewable Energy Publications by Eric Martinot

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"Grid integration of renewable energy: flexibility, innovation, and experience," Eric Martinot, Annual Review of Environment and Resources 2016, vol. 41, pp. 223-251. A comprehensive review of the measures and innovations for grid integration, with examples from around the world, written concisely in plain language for non-technical readers. Everything that author Eric Martinot has been able to learn about the subject over the past number of years. Link provides web-text version and also allows free download of the PDF for readers' own personal use only. Copyright 2016 Annual Reviews.

Beyond 33% Renewables: Grid Integration Policy for a Low-Carbon Future, White Paper by the California Public Utilities Commission, 2015. (Co-authors Meredith Younghein and Eric Martinot) How California is positioned and proceeding to integrate 33% renewables by 2020, and 50% by 2030, including potential policy pathways.

Status Report on Power System Transformation, NREL Report 63366, A 21st Century Power Partnership Report, 2015. (Co-authors Mackay Miller, Eric Martinot, Sadie Cox, Bethany Speer, et al.) A unique compilation of experience with innovations for power-sector transformation from around the world.

Grid Integration of Renewables in China: Learning from the Cases of California, Germany, and Denmark, 2015, A White Paper for the China Variable-Generation Integration Group (CVIG). (Author Eric Martinot) Simple explanations of what three of the leading jurisdictions worldwide are already doing to integrate their already-high shares of renewable energy.

"Distribution system planning and innovation for distributed energy futures," Current Sustainable and Renewable Energy Reports (2015): 247-254. (Co-authors Eric Martinot, Lorenzo Kristov, J. David Erickson) Perspectives on the needs and challenges for distribution-level power companies and energy-service companies as distributed energy grows in the future, including potential game-changing roles across the "transmission-distribution (TSO-DSO) boundary." Copyright Springer 2015.


Further publications on energy efficiency and technology transfer appear on other publications page.

REN21 Renewables Global Futures Report (Paris: REN21, 2013), 74 pp. (Report author Eric Martinot.)  A ground-breaking publication on the range of credible possibilities for the future of renewable energy, based on expert interviews and scenarios. Includes energy shares, integration challenges, investment futures, market and technology projections, and coverage of local, national, and global levels. The report, along with many other related materials, is also available at the REN21 website.

Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies, May 2011 Version, REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), and ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability (Tokyo: ISEP, 2011), 59 pp. (Lead Author: Eric Martinot.)  Describes city and local government policies around the world that promote renewable energy. Survey of 210 selected cities plus 40 case descriptions. Provides a framework for categorizing policies. Comments and additions are invited.

"China's latest leap: An update on renewables policy," Eric Martinot and Li Junfeng, Renewable Energy World 13(4): 51-57 (Jul/Aug 2010). An up-to-date summary of current market status and recent policy changes during 2008-2009, including a 2009 update by the Chinese government to the 2005 Renewable Energy Law.

"Renewable power for China: Past, present, and future," Eric Martinot, Frontiers of Energy and Power Engineering in China 4(3): 287-294 (2010). Provides an historical and current overview of markets and policies, as well as future priorities. Copyright Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2010.

Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, REN21 (Paris), 80 pp. (Lead authors Janet Sawin and Eric Martinot.)  This report is a synthesis of the renewable energy situation worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. It includes markets, policies, investments, industry, and rural energy. The report, along with many other related materials and an on-line policy map/database, is also available at the REN21 website. A summary article appears in the Renewable Energy World magazine Sep/Oct 2010 issue.

Renewables Global Status Report 2009 Update, REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network (Paris, 2009), 31 pp. (Lead Author: Eric Martinot)  This "update" edition supplements the 2007 full edition (below), with updated statistics and tables for 2008 and recent trends. There is also a summary on-line version in Renewable Energy World magazine Sep/Oct 2009.

"Renewable energy futures:  targets, scenarios, and pathways," Eric Martinot, Carmen Dienst, Liu Weiliang, and Chai Qimin, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 32 (2007), pp. 205-239. (The link provides full web-text and also free PDF download via "View/Print PDF" at upper right.)  Reviews and synthesizes the results of published scenarios to 2030 and 2050 for the world, Europe, and selected countries. Focuses on the future shares of renewable energy (of primary energy, electricity, heating, or transport) shown in scenarios and poilcy targets. Provides a clear and detailed explaination of the two different (and equally valid) methodologies for measuring "share of primary energy from renewables" (the "IEA Method" and the "BP Method", also called the "substitution method"). Cites 143 references (also listed and linked on the Renewable Energy Futures page of this web site). Copyright 2007 Annual Reviews. Note: article link provides complimentary one-time access for personal use. Any further/multiple distribution, publication, or commercial usage requires permission from the Annual Reviews Permissions Department (

Powering China's Development: The Role of Renewable Energy, Eric Martinot and Li Junfeng, Worldwatch Special Report (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2007), 48 pp. A comprehensive and in-depth description of the current situation and analysis of future prospects for all renewables technologies, including policies, market trends, industry development, and future targets and scenarios. Includes introduction to the general energy and environment situation in China. There is also a Chinese translation available. An on-line summary version appears in Renewable Energy World magazine Jan/Feb 2008.

Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network (Paris: REN21 and Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2008), 51 pp. (Lead Author: Eric Martinot.)  This report is a synthesis of the renewable energy situation worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. It includes markets, policies, investments, industry, and rural energy. This full edition follows the 2005 full edition and the 2006 update edition (see below). An on-line summary version appears in Renewable Energy World magazine Mar/Apr 2008.

"Renewable energy gains momentum: Global markets and policies in the spotlight," Eric Martinot, Environment 48(6): 26-43 (Jul/Aug 2006). Summary of the status of renewable energy worldwide, economic and environmental comparisons with fossil fuels, and prognosis for the future. Copyright 2006 Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation.

Renewables Global Status Report 2006 Update, REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network (Paris: REN21 and Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2006). (Lead Author: Eric Martinot.)  A 10-page update to the original 2005 report (see below), plus supplemental notes and references and a special section on trends in private finance and investment.

"China renewable energy roadmap: The international context and other roadmap experience," Eric Martinot, in proceedings of China Renewable Energy Development Strategy Workshop, October 28, 2005 (Beijing: Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology and Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research Center), pp. 166-187.

Renewables 2005 Global Status Report, REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network (Paris: REN21 and Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2005). (Lead Author: Eric Martinot.)  This report is a first-ever synthesis of the renewable energy situation worldwide, in both developed and developing countries, fit into 30 pages. It includes markets, policies, investments, industry, and rural energy.

"Renewable energy markets and policies in the United States," Eric Martinot, Ryan Wiser, and Jan Hamrin (Center for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, 2005). An overview of the history and status of renewable energy policies and markets in the United States and how they evolved over time.

"Renewable energy policies and barriers," Fred Beck and Eric Martinot, in Encyclopedia of Energy, ed. Cutler Cleveland (Academic Press/Elsevier Science, San Diego, 2004), pp. 365-383. Surveys a broad array of renewable energy policies from around the world and describes the key barriers which justify policy intervention. Copyright 2004 Academic Press/Elsevier Science.

"Global renewable energy markets and policies," Eric Martinot, New Academy Review 3(1): 56-67 (Spring 2004). Surveys existing markets for renewable energy, past and existing policies that have facilitated those markets, and implications of electric power sector restructuring for renewable energy. Considers future prospects from economic and policy perspectives. Copyright 2004 Eric Martinot.

"Indicators of investment and capacity for renewable energy," Eric Martinot, Renewable Energy World 7(5): 35-37 (2004). Provides total annual investment in renewable energy worldwide, plus capacities for electric power, solar hot water, and biofuels.

"Power sector restructuring and the environment: trends, policies, and GEF experience", in Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges, Njeri Wamukonya, editor (United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde, Denmark, 2003), 256 pp.

"Renewable energy markets in developing countries," Eric Martinot, Akanksha Chaurey, Debra Lew, Jose Roberto Moreira, and Njeri Wamukonya, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 27: 309-348 (2002). Remains a seminal work in the field. Reviews existing markets and installations for five core applications: rural lighting, productive uses, power generation, cooking/hot water, and transport fuels; gives emerging lessons for rural development, consumer credit, enterprise development, power sector policy, and market facilitation organizations. Copyright 2002 Annual Reviews.

"Grid-based renewable energy in developing countries: policies, strategies, and lessons from the GEF," Eric Martinot, in Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Policy and Strategy Forum, Berlin, June 13-15 (Eurosolaire, Bonn, Germany, 2002). Considers renewable energy policy experience from developed countries, impacts of power sector reform on renewable energy, and GEF project experience and future directions.

Results from the GEF Climate Change Program, Eric Martinot and Ramesh Ramankutty, Global Environment Facility Evaluation Report 1-02 (Washington, DC, 2002). Synthesizes the main impacts and lessons from the first 10 years of GEF projects for renewable energy and energy efficiency, grouped according to seven basic market development indicators.

"World Bank energy projects in China: Influences on environmental protection," Eric Martinot, Energy Policy 29(8): 581-594 (2001). Provides a general framework of 15 strategies for reducing environmental impacts of energy in China (looking at energy/environment linkages), and then evaluates World Bank energy projects from 1982-2000 within this framework, analyzing the extent to which projects have contributed to environmental technology and policy. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Published PDF available from Science Direct.

"Renewable energy investment by the World Bank," Eric Martinot, Energy Policy 29(9): 689-700 (2001). Covers history, institutional constraints and agendas, new initiatives, and suggested future strategies. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. Published PDF available from Science Direct.

"World Bank/GEF solar home system projects: experiences and lessons learned 1993-2000," Eric Martinot, Anil Cabraal, and Subodh Mathur, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 5(1): 39-57 (2001). Describes six basic approaches taken in World Bank projects for enhancing markets and removing barriers, and early project lessons. Copyright 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. Published PDF available from Science Direct.

"The GEF: financing and regulatory support for clean energy," Alan Miller and Eric Martinot, Natural Resources & Environment 15(3): 164-167; 206 (2001). Basic introduction to the GEF and overview of its market development strategies, with several project examples.

Measuring Results from Climate Change Programs: Performance Indicators for the GEF, David Nichols, Eric Martinot, Keith Kozloff, and Ed Vine, Global Environment Facility, Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper No. 4 (Washington, DC, 2000), 50 pp. Reviews evaluation literature and proposes seven indicators to measure market development and technology diffusion for GEF renewable energy and energy efficiency programs, along with evaluation strategies.

"World Bank solar home system projects: experiences and lessons learned 1993-2000," Eric Martinot and Anil Cabraal, Renewable Energy, proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress VI, 1-7 July 2000, Brighton, UK. Brief summary of paper of similar title above.

The GEF Solar PV Portfolio: Emerging Experience and Lessons, Eric Martinot, Ramesh Ramankutty, and Frank Rittner, Global Environment Facility, Monitoring and Evaluation Working Paper No. 2 (Washington, DC, 2000), 29 pp. Analyzes strategic issues, business models, financing models, and ten emerging lessons from portfolio of 23 projects.

"Expanding electricity access to remote areas: off-grid rural electrification in developing countries," Kilian Reiche, Alvaro Covarrubias, and Eric Martinot, in WorldPower 2000, Guy Isherwood, ed. (London: Isherwood Production Ltd., 2000), pp. 52-60. Introduces current thinking and approaches to providing rural energy services.

"Renewable energy markets and the Global Environment Facility," Eric Martinot, Financial Times Renewable Energy Report 12: 18-22 (February 2000). Describes GEF strategies for promoting renewable energy, the project portfolio, and project results.

Promoting Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: GEF Climate Change Projects and Impacts, Eric Martinot and Omar McDoom (Washington, DC: Global Environment Facility, 2000), 110 pp. Analyzes project designs in the GEF portfolio to produce a reference volume of GEF "barrier removal" strategies, including project objectives, approaches, and expected results-organized into nine project clusters. Includes classification and description of generic market barriers and extensive references.

"Regulatory approaches to off-grid electrification and renewable energy: case studies from six developing countries," Eric Martinot and Kilian Reiche, World Bank, Washingon DC (2000). Describes approaches to promoting regulated energy-service concessions in rural areas taken by six projects, including regulatory, business, and social issues.

"Renewable energy in Russia: markets, development and technology transfer," Eric Martinot, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 3: 49-75 (1999). Considers five potential commercial markets, barriers to the development of those markets, and ways for market intermediaries and joint ventures to overcome market barriers. Includes four detailed case studies. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. Published PDF available from Science Direct.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Market Development in World Bank/GEF Climate-Change Projects: Framework and Guidelines, Eric Martinot, World Bank Environment Department Paper No. 66 (Washington, DC, 1998), 57 pp. Reviews literature on assessment of renewable energy and energy efficiency market development from public interventions and develops a framework for indicators and evaluation methods in the context of GEF market-development projects. Ten case studies with indicators.

"Energy efficiency and renewable energy in Russia: transaction barriers, market intermediation, and capacity building," Eric Martinot, Energy Policy 26(11): 905-915 (1998). Summary of dissertation. Considers potential commercial markets and opportunities, barriers to investment and technology transfer, and ways for market intermediaries and different modes of technology transfer to overcome barriers. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. Published PDF available from Science Direct.

"Technologies for solar energy in the CIS," Eric Martinot, Future Age Energy 2:15 (Kiev: Echo-Vostok, 1996).

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Russia: Perspectives and Problems of International Technology Transfer and Investment, Eric Martinot, Ph.D. Dissertation, Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 1995, 369 pp. Copyright 1995 Eric Martinot. A summary version of the dissertation was published in Energy Policy, copyright 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

"Wind power in Russia today: development, resources, and technology transfer," Eric Martinot and Eduard Perminov, in Windpower '95 Proceedings (Washington, DC: American Wind Energy Association, 1995), pp. 215-224.

"Wind-generated electric power in the former Soviet Republics: geographical prospects," Eric Martinot, Post-Soviet Geography 32(4): 219-236 (1992).

Page updated January 30, 2017